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  Chicks and Temperature Regulation
Posted by: Henlus - 08-05-2019, 10:17 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Do you know that floor temperature is more important than air temperature? How do you feel in cold weather, if you lie on a cold floor in a warm room? It would be uncomfortable and a health threat. Chicks feel the same
way too. To ensure that the floor is warm, start heating the pen before the chicks arrive. I also have a thick layer of wood shavings on the floor.

The first 5 days is the most critical period. Within 2 weeks they become able to regulate their body temperature. Best way to check if temperature is ok is to wat ch the
chicks. If they are panting, have their wings spread apart or staying away from the heat source, reduce temperature. If they're inactive, coming closer to the heat source, increase temperature. Chicks that are comfortable will be active and distributed uniformly throughout the brooder.

Maintaing the correct brooding
temperature will lead to higher weight gain, lower feed consumption per kg weight gain, lower mortality and cost.

Read http://www.farmersjoint.com/blog/livestock-farming/poultry/raising-chicks-things-you-must-do-during-the-first-week

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  Poultry Feed Info
Posted by: Henlus - 08-05-2019, 09:24 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - Replies (1)

In this post, I will be making a list of info on poultry feed that I gathered from various researches.

1. Guinea grass in broiler diet: Guinea grass can replace up to 15% maize in broilers' diet. Considering the cheapness of guinea grass, this is a welcome info.

2. Sun-dried sweet potato meal can
replace up to 50% maize in broiler and pig ration with good result.

3. Cassava leaf meal can be included at 10 - 20% in broilers' diet if methionine and energy (carbohydrate) levels are increased. It can also replace other high fiber feedstuffs like palm kernel cake.

4. Duckweed (Lemna perpusilla): When broiler feed was partially replaced with 6% fresh or 7% dry duckweed, there was no effect on feed intake, weight gain, amount of feed consumed per kg gain and meat quality. Feed cost was reduced.

But note, the diet must still be balanced nutritionally for these to
work.

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  Max. Amount of Grain in Goat Feed
Posted by: Henlus - 08-05-2019, 09:12 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - Replies (1)

Adult meat goats must not be fed more than 1% of their body weight in grain. That is, the weight of grain fed must not be more than 1% of the goat's body weight. If the goat weighs 30kg, don't feed more than 0.3kg grain (i.e. 1/100 x 30kg = 0.3kg or 300g). This is
necessary so as to avoid a metabolic disease called acidiosis. For lactating does, grain shud not exceed 1.5% of her bodyweight.

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  Facts about Goat Health
Posted by: Henlus - 08-04-2019, 07:40 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - Replies (6)

In this post I'll be sharing some very important facts about goat health. I got them when I was doing some goat research as I'm planning to start a goat farm.
1. Offer kids feed containing coccidiostat from 2-6 weeks of age. Also offer it when they are weaned.

Examples of coccidiostat and their dosage (mg/kg body weight) in braclet include:
amprolium (50 mg/kg body weight . For 5 days)

monensin (0.75g per 44kg body weight or 15g/ton feed. This is fairly toxic. Should be fed throughout feeding period)

Sulfa drugs (include dimidine, guanidine, methazine, quinoxalin,) Reduce dose by half on subsequent days and treat for 3-5 days.

Lasalocid (20-90g/ton feed)

Decoquinate (0.5mg/kg feed for 28 days. No withdrawal period needed before animal is slaughtered)

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  Urea-Molasses Block for Cattle
Posted by: Henlus - 08-04-2019, 06:52 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - Replies (4)

Urea molasses block is a good suplement for cattle, especially those that are fed low quality forage like rice straw, grass hay, corn stover and other crop residues. It helps make the low quality forage more digestible and the animal gain more weight and produce more milk.The block is rich in protein (from urea), energy (from molasses, grain meals etc) and minerals (from mineral premix).
.
There are different ways to produce urea-molasses blocks. Here is one:
Molases: 30%
Rice bran: 20%
Urea: 4%
Cassava meal: 23%
Soybeans meal: 10%
Bone meal: 5%
Mineral premix: 3%
Salt: 5%
Bentonite: 5%

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  Palm Kernel Cake to Ruminants
Posted by: Henlus - 08-04-2019, 06:38 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

PKC contains copper at levels toxic to sheep. But for cattle, it is a good supplement and fattening feed. Up to 80% PkC is used in growing cattle feed in Malaysia. For dairy cows, up to 50% can be used. For sheep, limit it to 30%.

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  A Cattle Feed Formula based on Poultry Litter
Posted by: Henlus - 08-04-2019, 06:35 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Here is a feed formulae for cattle that can be fed in addition to grass:
Poultry litter: 65%
Citrus meal: 25%
Molasses: 9%
Minerals-vitamins premix: 1%)

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  Amount of Forage A Cow Will Eat per Day
Posted by: Henlus - 08-04-2019, 06:32 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Just like in poultry, knowing how much a cow will consume per day is important in planning feeding. Cows will eat more if the forage quality is high and vice versa. Below is the info:
1. Low Quality Forage: Examples include mature grass, crop residues etc. Intake will be about 1.5% of the cow's body weight.

2. Average-to-Good Quality Forage: Includes leafy grass with few seed heads. Intake is about 2.5% of body weight.

3. High Quality Forage: include young, leafy grass, legumes. Intake will be about 3% of body weight.

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  Simple feeds fmlae for Beef Cattle
Posted by: Henlus - 08-04-2019, 06:31 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Beef cattle can be fed a diet containing 70% grass and 30% legume. If crude protein intake is ok in forage-based feed, most other essential nutrients will be ok. But some minerals, especially phosphorus may be needed.

Napier grass and sweet potato forage can give as much as 0.5kg weight gain per day in heifers.

Green leaf desmodium and poor quality Pennisetum purpureum (16 weeks regrowth and 6.4% crude protein base on dry matter) gave 0.638kg daily weight gainto Heifers in Kenya. The desmodium was fed at 20% of dry matter intake and the grass was made available free choice.

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  Simple feeds fmlae for Beef Cattle
Posted by: Henlus - 08-04-2019, 06:29 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Beef cattle can be fed a diet containing 70% grass and 30% legume. If crude protein intake is ok in forage-based feed, most other essential nutrients will be ok. But some minerals, especially phosphorus may be needed.

Napier grass and sweet potato forage can give as much as 0.5kg weight gain per day in heifers.

Green leaf desmodium and poor quality Pennisetum purpureum (16 weeks regrowth and 6.4% crude protein base on dry matter) gave 0.638kg daily weight gainto Heifers in Kenya. The desmodium was fed at 20% of dry matter intake and the grass was made available free choice.

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  Simple feeds fmlae for Beef Cattle
Posted by: Henlus - 08-04-2019, 06:27 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Beef cattle can be fed a diet containing 70% grass and 30% legume. If crude protein intake is ok in forage-based feed, most other essential nutrients will be ok. But some minerals, especially phosphorus may be needed.

Napier grass and sweet potato forage can give as much as 0.5kg weight gain per day in heifers.

Green leaf desmodium and poor quality Pennisetum purpureum (16 weeks regrowth and 6.4% crude protein base on dry matter) gave 0.638kg daily weight gainto Heifers in Kenya. The desmodium was fed at 20% of dry matter intake and the grass was made available free choice.

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  Recommended amount of urea to give to milking cow
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 11:09 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Urea is a very cheap form of protein for ruminants. It is a form of protein called non-protein nitrogen (NPN) because it is not like the proteins found in meat, soybeans meal, fish meal etc. But mricrobes in ruminants' belly can use it as protein and multiply. When they die, the animal will use them as a source of protein.

Urea can do wonders in terms of promoting growth or milk yield. But too much can lead to disastrous effect. For milking cows, give a maximum of 220g per cow per day. But 110 to 150g per cow per day is more common. Mix it in the concentrate feed to achieve 1 to 2% urea in the total grain ration or 2.8 to 5.6% crude protein from NPN in total grain ration.

Urea contains about 262 to 287% crude protein.

Don't feed urea together with raw soybeans hull because an enzyme in the hull will break down urea to ammonia, causing poor palatability (poor feed intake). Also, don't feed it to calves less than 3 months old.

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  Aspilia africana to Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 11:05 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Aspilia africana is a weed that can be found in nigeria and other countries. It is good for rabbits. It can increase their milk production and growth. Fresh one will give higher milk yield and growth than wilted one.

In this experiment, the diet used was:
Centrosema pubescens: 200g
Sweet potato leaves: 200g
Panicum maxima: 100g
Aspilia africana: 500g

The rabbits were also fed a concentrate feed that contains:
Maize offal: 45%
Palm kernel cake: 30%
Soybean meal: 20%
Blood meal: 2%
Bone meal: 2%
Vitamins-minerals premix: 0.25%
Salt: 0.25%

250g of the premix contains vit A: 1500IU, vit D: 300IU, Vit E: 3 IU, vit k: 0.25g, Thiamine: 0.2mg, Riboflavin: 0.6mg, Pantothenic acid: 1mg, Pyridoxine: 0.4999mg, Niacin:4mg, vit B2: 0.002mg, Folic acid: 0.1mg, Biotin: 0.008mg, Choline: 0.05g, Antioxidant: 0.012g, Manganese: 0.0096g, Zinc: 0.006g, Copper: 0.0006g, Iodine: 0.00014g, Selenium: 0.024mg, Cobalt: 0.004mg

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  Sweet Potato Tubers to Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 11:04 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Sweet potato tubers can replace 100% maize without adverse effect on performance and health.

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  Cassava Leaves to Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 11:01 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - Replies (3)

Nutritionally, cassava leaves is as good as alfalfal and Aspilia africana. Fresh cassava foliage (leaves and stems) and cassava whole plant meal (dry roots, leaves and stems that has been grinded) can be included at up to 45% in weaned rabbit diet to replace maize and this had no adverse effect on performance or apparent nutrient digestibility.

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  Palm Kernel Cake to Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 11:00 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

PKC has a low starch to fiber ratio and this is good for rabbits as it may decrease mortality. It can be included at 20-30% in well-formulated rabbit feeds. Higher levels may lower performance. It can replace up to 50% of the protein supplied by soybean meal and 37.5% of that supplied by groundnut cake.

PKC is low in lysine and sulfur amino acides, supplying only58% and 80% respectively of the recommended levels.

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  Carrot Tops are Good for Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 10:56 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Carrot tops can replace 75% of soybean meal in growing rabbits diets, resulting in increase nutrient digestibility, live weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Higher inclusion than 75% is bad.

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  Rabbit Feed that Gave 15g/day Growth
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 10:50 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - Replies (2)

This growth rate is quite poor as it will take a rabbit about 66 days to gain 1kg in weight. But I think it is still manageable as a kind of maintanance diet or so. You should also consider the value of rabbits manure and urine. The urine is a good foliar spray to crops.

Here is the fmla:
Millet mash residure: 78%
Moringa leaf meal: 20%
Di calcium phosphate: 1%
Salt: 0.5%
Vitamin-mineral premix: 0.5%

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  How to Feed Forages to Rabbits
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 10:29 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Forages, that is, legumes and grasses, can supply a major part of crude protein and fiber for rabbits. But they can't supply a major part of energy. So supplementing forages with energy sources like wheat offal and rice bran is good. High-starch feedstuffs like maize, roots, fruits should be fed in small quantities as too much is unhealthy for rabbits.

Forages can also be supplemented by protein sources like soybeans meal, groundnut cake, palm kernel cake etc.

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  Rabbits, Cassava Peels and Cyanide
Posted by: Henlus - 08-03-2019, 10:26 PM - Forum: Livestock Farming - No Replies

Cassava contains a toxin called cyanide. This toxin, when consumed up to a certain quantity can cause bad health effect on rabbits or even death. You can reduce the toxic effect by adding 5% palm oil to cassava peel.

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