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Chickens: Giving Papain to Chickens?
#1
I hope you guys know about papain. It is gotten when unripe pawpaw is soaked in water overnight. The white liquid extract is papian. In man, I know that it aid digestion and it it used to make tough meat tender. In chickens, I think it also aid digestion. Are my right?
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#2
Is papain gotten by soaking? I thought it's by cutting unripe pawpaw while it is still attach to the tree. The papain flowing out of the cuts is then tapped. Anyway, I couldn't find any research on it with regard to chickens. But you can still do it personally, you don't know what you might discover.
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#3
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar...4316302625.

In that study above, they tested different levels of papain in broilers' diet, from 0 to 0.07% crude papain extract in the diet. Both mash and pelleted diets were tested, but the mash diet and 0.05% papain gave best result in terms of dry matter digestibility.
Food for the Nation.
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#4
Note:
Papain is can be dangerous. Prolonged contact will damage the skin and it can cause cause allergic reactions in some people.

Uses of Papain:
Meat Tenderizing: Papain softens meat and make them cook faster. Some people make use of paracetamol to achieve this. But that is a drug abuse that can be very dangerous to consumers. Papain is a safe alternative

Pharmaceutical industry use it to produce some drugs.

Can be use for the treatment of hard skin

It can be use to deworm cattle

Use in leather tanning
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#5
Methods of collection and extraction
[ edit]
Papain is obtained by cutting the skin of the unripe but almost mature papaya and then collecting and drying the latex which flows from the cuts. Tapping of the fruit should start early in the morning and finish by mid-late morning (ie during periods of high humidity). At low humidity the flow of latex is low.
Two or three vertical cuts (except the first cut, see below) 1-2mm deep are then made, meeting at the base of the fruit. The incisions are made using a stainless steel razor blade set into a piece of rubber attached to a long stick. The blade should not protrude more than about 2mm as cuts deeper than 2mm risk juices and starch from the fruit pulp mixing with the latex which lowers the quality.
Fruits should be tapped at intervals of about 4-7 days and for the first tapping it is usually sufficient to make only one cut. On subsequent tappings the two or three cuts are spaced between earlier ones (as explained above).
After about 4-6 minutes the flow of latex ceases. A dish is used to collect the latex and the latex is then scraped into a polythene lined box with a close fitting lid; such a box should be stored in the shade. The use of a close fitting lid and keeping the box in the shade are both important because they reduce the reactions which cause the loss of enzyme activity. Foreign matter such as dirt and insects in the latex should be avoided. Latex adhering to the fruit should be carefully scraped off and transferred to the collecting box. However, dried latex should not be mixed with fresh latex as this lowers the quality.
When handling fresh latex, care should be taken to ensure that it does not come into contact with skin as it will cause burning. Neither should it come into contact with heavy metals such as iron, copper or brass as this causes discolouration and loss of activity. Pots, knives and spoons should not be used unless they are made from plastic or stainless steel. Fresh latex does not keep well and should be dried to below 5% moisture (when it will have a dry and crumbly texture) as soon as possible.
After two or three months the fruits are ripe and should be removed from the tree. The ripe fruits are edible but have very little sale value because of their scarred appearance. However, the skin of the green ripe papaya does contain about 10% pectin (dry weight) and the fruits could be processed to extract this.

https://www.appropedia.org/Papain_Produc...ion_Brief)


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#6
Drying Papain

Sun drying
Sun drying gives the lowest quality product as there is considerable loss of enzyme activity and the papain can easily turn brown. However, in many countries sun drying is still the most common processing technique for papain. The latex is simply spread on trays and left in the sun to dry.

Oven drying
Papain driers can be of simple construction. In Sri Lanka they are generally simple out-door stoves (about one metre high) made out of mud or clay bricks. Drying times vary but an approximate guide is 4-5 hours at a temperature of about 35-40°C. Drying is complete when the latex is crumbly and not sticky. A better quality product is obtained if the latex is sieved before drying. The dried product should be stored in air-tight and light-proof containers (eg sealed clay pots or metal cans) and kept in a cool place. Metal containers should be lined with polythene.

Spray drying
This is not possible at small-scale. A considerable investment in equipment (eg £10,000) is required. However, spray dried papain may be bought for the small-scale processing of foods.

Spray dried papain has a higher enzyme activity than other papains and is totally soluble in water. Extreme care must be taken when handling this form of papain because it can cause allergies and emphysema if inhaled. For this reason spray dried papain is often encapsulated in a gelatine coat.
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#7
Paracetamol as Meat Tenderizer. See the possible bad effects:

When paracetamol is used for cooking, it is hydrolyzed (broken down) into 4-aminophenol , which is highly toxic to the kidney. Also, high consumption of analgesics over many years is a well-known cause of kidney damage.

Paracetamol poisoning usually causes liver failure which may also be accompanied by acute renal failure. High doses of aspirin or paracetamol can cause acute renal failure.
Perhaps it’s out of ignorance that some of the operators use the drug for cooking. For such persons, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC ), is urging food preparers to soak meat in a salty solution for about 30 minutes before cooking.

Other suggestions include using a pressure cooker, soak meat in a vinegar solution, citrus juice or wine before cooking. Another option to tenderize meat is to soak it in pineapple, kiwi, ginger, Asian pear or pawpaw as they contain enzymes to soften meat.

One sure way is to cook the meat slowly or use legally sanctioned meat tenderizers either in powder or liquid form to cook.

From https://face2faceafrica.com/article/outr...tting-move
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#8
Wow. 8 drops of papain is adequate to tenderize 1 kilogram of beef - https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/searc...=TH9620328
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